A 3D Steganalytic Algorithm and Steganalysis-Resistant Watermarking

Ying Yang, Ruggero Pintus, Holly Rushmeier, Ioannis Ivrissimtzis
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphic, Volume 23, Number 2, page 1002--1013 - february 2017
Download the publication : tvcg2016-3dsteganalysis_and_watermarking.pdf [4Mo]  
We propose a simple yet efficient steganalytic algorithm for watermarks embedded by two state-of-the-art 3D watermarking algorithms by Cho et al. The main observation is that while in a clean model the means/variances of Cho et al.’s normalized histogram bins are expected to follow a Gaussian distribution, in a marked model their distribution will be bimodal. The proposed algorithm estimates the number of bins through an exhaustive search and then the presence of a watermark is decided by a tailor made normality test or a t-test. We also propose a modification of Cho et al.’s watermarking algorithms with the watermark embedded by changing the histogram of the radial coordinates of the vertices. Rather than targeting a continuous statistics such as the mean or variance of the values in a bin, the proposed watermarking modifies a discrete statistic, which here is the height of the histogram bin, to achieve watermark embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that the modified algorithm offers not only better resistance against the steganalytic attack we developed, but also an improved robustness/capacity trade-off.

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BibTex references

  author       = {Yang, Y. and Pintus, R. and Rushmeier, H. and Ivrissimtzis, I.},
  title        = {A 3D Steganalytic Algorithm and Steganalysis-Resistant Watermarking},
  journal      = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphic},
  number       = {2},
  volume       = {23},
  pages        = {1002--1013},
  month        = {february},
  year         = {2017},
  keywords     = {Steganalysis, Watermarking},
  doi          = {10.1109/TVCG.2016.2525771},
  url          = {},

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» Ying Yang
» Ruggero Pintus
» Holly Rushmeier
» Ioannis Ivrissimtzis